Atherosclerosis is a disease in which accumulation of plaque in the walls of the artery restrains the flow of oxygen-rich blood and appropriate feeding of organs [1]. Intravascular imaging techniques, such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) [2] and intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) [3-5], have been applied as techniques with resolutions superior to X-ray fluoroscopy to visualize the artery walls and plaques. Some clinician have proposed the use of IVUS [6, 7] and IVOCT [8] to verify the results of treatments such as angioplasty. Intravascular balloon inflation has been applied in different medical procedures, such as angioplasty. In these procedures, balloon inflation is usually performed manually. Computerized balloon inflation has been proposed [9-11] with the aim to improve angioplasty results by reducing arterial injury which is linked to undesired phenomena, such as restenosis [12]. Restenosis is the renarrowing of the artery which may happen after the intervention. Previously [13], we proposed a method to control the luminal diameter of arteries during angioplasty balloon inflation. As a first experimental validation, we tested this method using a semi-compliant balloon and an artery phantom [14]. In the proposed method, the balloon inflation was controlled in order to achieve a target luminal diameter for the phantom. Using an edge detection algorithm, the lumen of the phantom was detected in IVOCT images that were continuously acquired during the inflation. The lumen diameter was estimated in real-time and compared with the target diameter. Based on this comparison, a controller sent commands to a programmable pump to deliver or withdraw liquid until the target diameter was achieved. The proposed control method could improve angioplasty results by reducing arterial injury during balloon inflation. It could also reduce the exposure to X-ray, as the guidance is partly provided by IVOCT. Further safety advantages include a more repeatable inflation procedure since conditions are better controlled and a constant visualization of the response of the artery wall to deformation since it is implicitly provided by the IVOCT imaging. In this study, we extend our experimental validation of balloon inflation control to porcine arteries, both in ex vivo and close to in vivo conditions. Experiments were performed using a compliant balloon. First, controlled inflation was performed in arteries of an excised porcine heart. The goal was to assess the performance of the control system in response to dynamics of the compliant balloons and real porcine arteries. Inflation control in real arteries was a step forward from our preliminary work on phantoms [13]. In a further advance, i.e., a beating heart setup, we simulated two realistic aspects of the in vivo condition, namely, the presence of a blood flow and the presence of cyclic arterial contractions during the heart beat. We investigated if the edge detection could be performed in presence of blood. We also investigated if the control system could robustly provide convergence to target diameters in presence of arterial contractions.